It is believed they tightly monitor cellular and digital communications. [360][361] A five-year scientific plan emphasizing IT, biotechnology, nanotechnology, marine and plasma research was carried out in the early 2000s. [72] However, by the 1980s, the economy had begun to stagnate; it started its long decline in 1987 and almost completely collapsed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, when all Soviet aid was suddenly halted. The same year, North Korea revalued the North Korean won, which held greater value than its South Korean counterpart. For the Republic of Korea, see. [111][112] Its role is to deliberate and decide the work on defense building of the State, including major policies of the State; and to carry out the directions of the Chairman of the commission, Kim Jong-Un. According to article 1 of the constitution of North Korea, the DPRK is an "independent socialist State". Related acronyms and abbreviations. [385], After the peninsula was divided in 1945, two distinct cultures formed out of the common Korean heritage. [91] The tensions substantially decreased in 2018, and a détente developed. Power shortages are chronic and would not be alleviated even by electricity imports because the poorly maintained grid causes significant losses during transmission. Critics believe that the real purpose of the launch was to test a ballistic missile. Definizione in inglese: North Korea Freedom Act. [168] North Korea was re-designated a state sponsor of terrorism by the U.S. under the Trump administration on 20 November 2017. [263], The famine had a significant impact on the population growth rate, which declined to 0.9% annually in 2002. NORS - NORSA - NORSB - NORSE - Norspa - NORTHAG - NORTHCON - NORVA - NORWICH - NORWP. [211], According to Amnesty International, citizens in North Korea are denied freedom of movement including the right to leave the country[212] at will and its government denies access to international human rights observers. [305] The major slowdown of the economy contrasted with South Korea, which surpassed the North in terms of absolute GDP and per capita income by the 1980s. Article 109 of the Constitution of North Korea. [298] The North Korean government claims all citizens are equal and denies any discrimination on the basis of family background. [280], The 2008 census listed the entire population as literate. North Korea listed as DPNK North Korea does not publish reliable National Income Accounts data; the data shown are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP estimates that were made by Angus MADDISON in a study conducted for the OECD; his figure for 1999 was extrapolated to 2015 using estimated real growth rates for North Korea's GDP and an inflation factor based on the US GDP deflator; the results were … In 1959, relations with Japan had improved somewhat, and North Korea began allowing the repatriation of Japanese citizens in the country. Their "WMDs" can only fly 35 seconds before falling apart.Their soldiers are starving and are still using low-quality guns and equipment dating back to the end of WW2. "Kim Jong Un is skirting sanctions and pursuing this energy strategy to keep North Korea afloat", "North Korea to Utilize Science and Technology to Overcome Its Energy Crisis", "North Korea Adopts Renewable Energy Law", "Progress in North Korea's Renewable Energy Production", "Activity Seen at North Korean Nuclear Plant", "High Speed Rail and Road Connecting Kaesong-Pyongyang-Sinuiju to be Built", "Cars on Pyongyang streets can tell us a lot about the country", "North Korea to Become Strong in Science and Technology by Year 2022", N. Korea moves to develop cutting-edge nanotech industry, "Two Koreas can cooperate in chemistry, biotech and nano science: report", "High-Tech Development Zones: The Core of Building a Powerful Knowledge Economy Nation", ". The daily average high and low temperatures for Pyongyang are −3 and −13 °C (27 and 9 °F) in January and 29 and 20 °C (84 and 68 °F) in August. [376] International calls through either fixed or cellular service are restricted, and mobile Internet is not available. A great majority of the population lives in the plains and lowlands. [417] The main news provider is the Korean Central News Agency. North Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, D.P.R.K., DPRK (noun) a communist country in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula; established in 1948. see more ». [43], After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon (조선) in North Korea, and Hanguk (한국) in South Korea. [200] Supporters of the government who deviate from the government line are subject to reeducation in sections of labor camps set aside for that purpose. [279] According to WHO, expenditure on health per capita is one of the lowest in the world. Legislative power is held by the unicameral Supreme People's Assembly (SPA). [335] The SEZ system was overhauled in 2013 when 14 new zones were opened and the Rason Special Economic Zone was reformed as a joint Chinese-North Korean project. According to Religious Intelligence in 2007, 64% of the population are irreligious, 16% practice Korean shamanism, 14% practice Chondoism, 4% are Buddhist, and 2% are Christian. 1 for military spending relative to GDP: State Department report", "Force Index | National Rankings by Military Strength", "Foreign Assistance to North Korea: Congressional Research Service Report for Congress", "US Has Put Food Aid for North Korea on Hold", "The State of North Korean Farming: New Information from the UN Crop Assessment Report", "Korea, Democratic People's Republic (DPRK) | WFP | United Nations World Food Programme – Fighting Hunger Worldwide", "North Korea Census Reveals Poor Demographic and Health Conditions", "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) - Korea, Dem. [108][109] His grandfather Kim Il-sung, the founder and leader of North Korea until his death in 1994, is the country's "eternal President",[110] while his father Kim Jong-il who succeeded Kim Il-sung as the leader was announced "Eternal General Secretary" and "Eternal Chairman of the National Defence Commission" after his death in 2011.[108]. These remains were registered as the first World Heritage property of North Korea in the UNESCO World Heritage Committee (WHC) in July 2004. [216] Political prisoners are sent to labor camps, while criminal offenders are incarcerated in a separate system. The only ones with protection are those whose husbands or fathers are themselves in positions of power. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo (Koguryŏ) which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time,[31][32][33][34] ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East[35] and parts of Inner Mongolia,[36] under Gwanggaeto the Great. [441], This article is about the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. [180] Both North and South Korea signed the June 15th North–South Joint Declaration, in which both sides promised to seek peaceful reunification. Neighbouring Country North Korea Country code KP. [164] North Korea continues to have strong ties with its socialist southeast Asian allies in Vietnam and Laos, as well as with Cambodia. Some of them took part in allied action in China and parts of South East Asia. [224] Security forces employ mass surveillance. The military faces some issues limiting its conventional capabilities, including obsolete equipment, insufficient fuel supplies and a shortage of digital command and control assets due to other countries being banned from selling weapons to it by the UN sanctions. [408], Government policies towards film are no different than those applied to other arts—motion pictures serve to fulfill the targets of "social education". [306] North Korea declared the last seven-year plan unsuccessful in December 1993 and thereafter stopped announcing plans. ", Hayes, Peter, and Roger Cavazos. [423] Max Fisher of The Washington Post has written that "almost any story [on North Korea] is treated as broadly credible, no matter how outlandish or thinly sourced". [431] Its 1966 appearance was much more successful, seeing a surprise 1–0 victory over Italy and a quarter final loss to Portugal by 3–5. [380] On 19 September 2016, a TLDR project noticed the North Korean Internet DNS data and top-level domain was left open which allowed global DNS zone transfers. South Korea. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. [430], Most schools have daily practice in association football, basketball, table tennis, gymnastics, boxing and others. [223] According to official North Korean media, military expenditures for 2010 amount to 15.8 percent of the state budget. [201], North Korean defectors[202] have provided detailed testimonies on the existence of the total control zones where abuses such as torture, starvation, rape, murder, medical experimentation, forced labor, and forced abortions have been reported. Most services—such as healthcare, education, housing and food production—are subsidized or state-funded. [299] There are 3 main classifications and about 50 sub-classifications. Couldn't find the full form or full meaning of North? [419] Uriminzokkiri and its associated YouTube and Twitter accounts distribute imagery, news and video issued by government media. [332][333] North Korea has a number of special economic zones (SEZs) and Special Administrative Regions where foreign companies can operate with tax and tariff incentives while North Korean establishments gain access to improved technology. [382], According to high-level North Korean defectors, since the 1970s, revenue accumulated through foreign currency, revenue which is wholly separate from the official economic organs of the state, is of economic significance. The government own all real estate, and give everyone rights to occupy a home, free of cost, the location, size and quality of home depends by your job. Monitored heavily by government officials, the media is strictly used to reinforce ideals approved by the government. [314] The North Korean won is the national currency, issued by the Central Bank of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Provinces are the first-level division within South Korea. [303], North Korea has maintained one of the most closed and centralized economies in the world since the 1940s. [230], Of all KPA branches, the Ground Force is the largest. It is one of the most powerful state institutions in North Korea and oversees the national police force, investigates criminal cases and manages non-political correctional facilities. [179], The Sunshine Policy instituted by South Korean president Kim Dae-jung in 1998 was a watershed in inter-Korean relations. Other prominent ranges are the Hamgyong Range in the extreme northeast and the Rangrim Mountains, which are located in the north-central part of North Korea. [321] Private trade is dominated by women because most men are required to be present at their workplace, even though many state-owned enterprises are non-operational. [73], In 1992, as Kim Il-sung's health began deteriorating, Kim Jong-il slowly began taking over various state tasks. [175] On 10 October 1980, then North Korean president Kim Il-sung proposed a federation between North and South Korea named the Democratic Federal Republic of Korea in which the respective political systems would initially remain. [62] It claims that the Korean War was caused by the United States and South Korea. [424] Occasional deliberate disinformation on the part of North Korean establishments further complicates the issue. [387] Over 190 historical sites and objects of national significance are cataloged as National Treasures of North Korea, while some 1,800 less valuable artifacts are included in a list of Cultural Assets. [44][45] For this reason, the people do not consider themselves as 'North Koreans' but as Koreans in the same divided country as their compatriots in the South and foreign visitors are discouraged from using the former term.[46]. Keep in mind that the abbreviation of NK is widely used in industries like banking, computing, educational, finance, governmental, and health. There is much speculation about this policy being used as a strategy to strengthen the military while discouraging coup attempts. [190] In September, at a joint news conference in Pyongyang, Moon and Kim agreed upon turning the Korean Peninsula into a "land of peace without nuclear weapons and nuclear threats". The two successfully lobbied Joseph Stalin to support a quick war against the South, which culminated in the outbreak of the Korean War. [240][241] Because of its nuclear and missile tests, North Korea has been sanctioned under United Nations Security Council resolutions 1695 of July 2006, 1718 of October 2006, 1874 of June 2009, 2087 of January 2013,[242] and 2397 in December 2017. [273], According to a 2003 report by the United States Department of State, almost 100% of the population has access to water and sanitation. [125] Its core tenets are economic self-sufficiency, military self-reliance and an independent foreign policy. Marriage is virtually universal and divorce is extremely rare. [208], The North Korean government rejects the human rights abuse claims, calling them "a smear campaign" and a "human rights racket" aimed at government change. Pyongyang is the capital city of North Korea. (book review of 'Kim Il-song's North Korea' by Helen-Louise Hunter). The U.S. government treated North Korea as a rogue state, while North Korea redoubled its efforts to acquire nuclear weapons to avoid the fate of Iraq. [386], Korean heritage is protected and maintained by the state. In fact, the propaganda apparatus in Pyongyang has generally been careful not to make claims that run directly counter to citizens' experience or common sense. [416] According to Freedom House, all media outlets serve as government mouthpieces, all journalists are party members and listening to foreign broadcasts carries the threat of a death penalty. In spite of the United States recognition of South Korea. It employs around 1,000 artists in what is likely the biggest art factory in the world where paintings, murals, posters and monuments are designed and produced. [117], Executive power is vested in the Cabinet of North Korea, which has been headed by Premier Kim Dok-hun since 14 August 2020. [348], North Korea also strives to develop its own civilian nuclear program. The launch was strongly condemned by the UN Security Council. [70] In United States policymaking, North Korea was considered among the Captive Nations. [79][80][81] On 9 October 2006, North Korea announced it had conducted its first nuclear weapons test. [437][438] Rungrado 1st of May Stadium, the largest stadium in the world with its capacity of 150,000, hosts the Festival. [285] Written language uses only the chosŏn'gŭl (Hangul) phonetic alphabet, developed under Sejong the Great (1418–1450). [330] North Korea has been aiming to increase the number of foreign visitors through projects like the Masikryong Ski Resort. [261] Domestic food production almost recovered to the recommended annual level of 5.37 million tons of cereal equivalent in 2013,[262] but the World Food Program reported a continuing lack of dietary diversity and access to fats and proteins. [428][429] Okryu-gwan sends research teams into the countryside to collect data on Korean cuisine and introduce new recipes. [346] A set of legal regulations adopted in 2014 stressed the development of geothermal, wind and solar energy along with recycling and environmental conservation. KOR TLD. [339] Overall, external trade in 2013 reached a total of $7.3 billion (the highest amount since 1990[340]), while inter-Korean trade dropped to an eight-year low of $1.1 billion. [412] Western films like The Interview, Titanic, and Charlie's Angels are just a few films that have been smuggled across the borders of North Korea, allowing for access to the North Korean citizens. [389], Most aspects of art have been dominated by Mansudae Art Studio since its establishment in 1959. [317] A variety of goods are available in department stores and supermarkets in Pyongyang,[318] though most of the population relies on small-scale jangmadang markets. [440], Between 2010 and 2019, North Korea has imported 138 purebred horses from Russia at cost of over $584,000. North Korea's Secret Movie Bootleggers: How Western Films Make It Into the Hermit Kingdom. According to a 2004 South Korean assessment, North Korea possesses a stockpile of chemical weapons estimated to amount to 2,500–5,000 tons, including nerve, blister, blood, and vomiting agents, as well as the ability to cultivate and produce biological weapons including anthrax, smallpox, and cholera. South Korea has a land border with North Korea in north. Kim developed a cult of personality closely tied to the state philosophy of Juche, which was later passed on to his successors: his son Kim Jong-il and grandson Kim Jong-un. "North Korea in 2015. [101], North Korea functions as a highly centralized, one-party state. Winters bring clear weather interspersed with snow storms as a result of northern and northwestern winds that blow from Siberia. [398], Pop music appeared in the 1980s with the Pochonbo Electronic Ensemble and Wangjaesan Light Music Band. [405] The availability of foreign literature is limited, examples being North Korean editions of Indian, German, Chinese and Russian fairy tales, Tales from Shakespeare, some works of Bertolt Brecht and Erich Kästner,[390] and the Harry Potter series. The talks ultimately failed because in 1973, South Korea declared its preference that the two Koreas should seek separate memberships in international organizations. [17][381], On 8 July 2020, the CNN reported that satellite imagery showed activity at a North Korean facility, which was suspected by researchers of being utilized for building nuclear warheads. Weapons are manufactured in roughly 1,800 underground defense industry plants scattered throughout the country, most of them located in Chagang Province. These efforts are under much international dispute due to their military applications and concerns about safety. The most worthless "country" in the world. Employment is managed by the party on the basis of political reliability, and travel is tightly controlled by the Ministry of People's Security. [103] The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK), led by a member of the Kim dynasty,[104] has an estimated 3,000,000 members and dominates every aspect of North Korean politics. [151], As a result of its isolation, North Korea is sometimes known as the "hermit kingdom", a term that originally referred to the isolationism in the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty. Sci-fi works glorify technology and promote the Juche concept of anthropocentric existence through depictions of robotics, space exploration and immortality. [171] They met in Hanoi from 27 to 28 February 2019, but failed to achieve an agreement. [290][291] Amnesty International has expressed concerns about religious persecution in North Korea. [183] It deployed additional ballistic missiles[184] and placed its military on full combat alert after South Korea, Japan and the United States threatened to intercept a Unha-2 space launch vehicle. Throughout 2017, following Donald Trump's assumption of the US presidency, tensions between the United States and North Korea increased, and there was heightened rhetoric between the two, with Trump threatening "fire and fury"[90] and North Korea threatening to test missiles that would land near Guam. [132] Juche's concepts of self-reliance have evolved with time and circumstances, but still provide the groundwork for the spartan austerity, sacrifice and discipline demanded by the party. [294], The Open Doors mission, a Protestant-group based in the United States and founded during the Cold War-era, claims the most severe persecution of Christians in the world occurs in North Korea. More recently, this foreign currency is said to have been also derived from the over 100,000 North Korean migrant workers sent around the world, and who contribute the lionshare of their income to this "Royal Court" fund. Koreans were forced to learn and speak Japanese, adopt the Japanese family name system and Shinto religion, and were forbidden to write or speak the Korean language in schools, businesses, or public places. North Korea runs on a centrally-planned economy model that is not based on money. [254], With the exception of a small Chinese community and a few ethnic Japanese, North Korea's 25,549,604[8][9] people are ethnically homogeneous. Some scholars believe that the 1956 August incident demonstrated independence. [259], Most graduates from the compulsory program do not attend university but begin their obligatory military service or proceed to work in farms or factories instead. Nobody is homeless or beggi… Cover is navy blue. [386] Ideological messages are conveyed through massive orchestral pieces like the "Five Great Revolutionary Operas" based on traditional Korean ch'angguk. [12] In 2012, Gross national income per capita was $1,523, compared to $28,430 in South Korea. [88] In the face of international condemnation, North Korea continued to develop its nuclear arsenal, possibly including a hydrogen bomb and a missile capable of reaching the United States.[89]. [61], A heavily guarded demilitarized zone (DMZ) still divides the peninsula, and an anti-communist and anti-North Korea sentiment remains in South Korea. [124] It has also been described as a Stalinist dictatorship. In the immediate vicinity of South Korea are countries such as North Korea, Japan & Taiwan. The penal code is based on the principle of nullum crimen sine lege (no crime without a law), but remains a tool for political control despite several amendments reducing ideological influence. An adequate nationwide fiber-optic telephone system with 1.18 million fixed lines[374] and expanding mobile coverage is in place. Freedom Index for 790 kilometers ( 491 mi ) [ 95 ] some have referred to latter. 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