They were rescued from the cave by the Gond culture hero Pahandi Kapar Lingal, with the assistance of the goddess Jangu Bai. Gonds believe the ancestral spirits watch over the moral behavior of the living and punish offenders of tribal law. Honey is also gathered from the forest. The Gonds face problems typical of tribal peoples throughout South Asia. Sometimes it is ground and baked into a flat cake. . Both boys and girls help guard their family's crops from birds and monkeys. Although sons are preferred, daughters are equally welcomed. The Bowstring of Gond is an item found in Sendai's Enclave. Magic may be "white" or "black": it is white if it counteracts black magic or effects a cure when a sickness has been caused by black magic. Despite their numbers, the Gonds are an assemblage of diverse tribal groups. It is the Gondi language, as much as anything else, that lends a sense of cultural uniformity to the diverse tribal groups that make up the Gonds. The staples of the Gond diet are two millets known as kodo and kutki. Land (35) Planeswalker (1) Enchantment (12) … There are lot many hair loss types: Involutional Alopecia- It is the natural gradual thinning of hair with age.There is an … Vegetables are either grown in gardens or collected from forests along with roots and tubers. M.A. A distinct cluster of Gond tribes, somewhat isolated from the main Gond distributions, occurs in the Garhjat Hills of northern Orissa. In addition to its Gond inhabitants, a village has its service castes such as the Ahir (cowherds), Agaria (blacksmiths), Dhulia (drummers), and Pardhan (bards and singers). Leisure time is passed with the family or visiting friends and neighbors. Sacrifices and religious ceremonies on family occasions are usually performed by the head of the family. The term Gond refers to tribal peoples who live all over India's Deccan Peninsula. [9], According to the 1971 census, their population was 5.01 million. They also consume large amounts of liquor distilled from the mahua tree (Bassia latifolia) as a part of both religious and social celebrations. The status of women is markedly better among Gonds than in Hindu caste society. Each village has its council, with officials like the headman, the priest, the village watchman, and four or five elders. They consist of a living room, kitchen, veranda, a special room for women to use while menstruating, and a shrine for clan gods. Kinship and marriage customs among the Gonds reflect broader regional patterns. The Gonds are among the largest tribal groups in South Asia and perhaps the world. Bands of young people travel from village to village, dancing and singing. In this sense, they are the guardians of the Gond community. From their physical appearance it is obvious that they differ from the Aryan and Dravidian speakers settled in the country. Dolcini, Donatella. Periodically (every 9 or 12 years), the Gonds sacrifice a pig to the god Narayan Deo in an important ceremony known as the Laru Kaj ("Pig's Wedding"). CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "A-11 Individual Scheduled Tribe Primary Census Abstract Data and its Appendix", Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, "ST-14 Scheduled Tribe Population By Religious Community", "The Koitur community is reclaiming their linguistic identity despite the state's historical biases", "Bringing rural realities on stage in urban India", "Salwa Judum is the only effective weapon against Maoist terror at present", "Erratum: Reconstructing the population history of the largest tribe of India: the Dravidian speaking Gond", "Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: the early origins of Indian ...anthropomorphize", "State wise Scheduled Tribes — Uttar Pradesh", "A-10 Individual Scheduled Caste Primary Census Abstract Data and its Appendix - Uttar Pradesh", Reconstructing the population history of the largest tribe of India: the Dravidian speaking Gond, « Animating Tribal Art » by Leslie MacKenzie and Tara Douglas with the Pardhan Gond artists, Orange City Craft Mela and Folk Dance Festival, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Nagpur, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagpur, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Government College of Engineering, Nagpur, Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur, List of educational institutions in Nagpur, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gondi_people&oldid=994940132, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles needing additional references from April 2011, All articles needing additional references, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Savaging the Civilized, Verrier Elwin, His Tribals & India - Ramachandra Guha - The University of Chicago Press - 1999. [23], Like village deity worship in South India, Gonds believe their small deities have the capability of possession. The visitor is welcomed and presented with small gifts, perhaps some dried tobacco leaves or fruits from the forest. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gond, Fuchs, Stephen "Gond Cespenar can use this item to upgrade the Darkfire Bow, Firetooth or Taralash. Although sons are preferred, daughters are welcome too. LOCATION: Igboland (Southern Nigeria) The first historical references from the Gonds comes from Muslim writers in the 14th century. The upland areas generally lie between 600 and 900 m (roughly 2,000-3,000 ft), with isolated peaks occasionally exceeding 1,200 m (approximately 4,000 ft). Various rituals, including sacrifice to the household gods, are performed after birth. Virtually all aspects of Gond ritual life, from the greatest festivals to the building of a new cattle shed, are accompanied by sacrifice. The term was widely used in the 1950s, but has now become almost obsolete, probably because of the political eclipse of the Gond Rajas. They have composed a great epic celebrating the origins and exploits of a Culture hero named Lingo. The other Gond sections have no dormitory system. They believe the gods would punish such a sin with a skin disease, worms in a wound, or leprosy. Maratha power swept into Gond land in the 1740s. The father of a groom pays a bride price. Jharkhand, created in 2000 from the southern areas of Bihar largely to fulfill the aspirations of its tribal populations (c. 89% of the total state's population), also contains a considerable number of Gonds among its estimated 40 million people. Fürer-Haimendorf, Christoph von, and Elizabeth von Fürer-Haimendorf. [24], Gonds also believe in rain gods. Yet it is in mythology and the deeds of Gond heroes that the social norms of Gond society are rooted. Some Gond zamindaris (estates) survived until recently. Some have claimed that the Gonds were a collection of disparate tribes that adopted a proto-Gondi language as a mother tongue from a class of rulers, originally speaking various pre-Dravidian languages. Among these two sections we find the greatest number of Gonds with substantial landholdings. [Online] Available http://www.indiaserver.com/cginyc/, 1998. Literacy varies from 62.5% in Maharashtra to 50.3% in Madhya Pradesh. A divorce requires the legal sanction of the tribal council of the village. A widow usually remains in the house, which is inherited by her youngest son (ultimogeniture) . The Gond rajas were overthrown and their territory annexed, except for some of the more remote hill areas that held out against the invaders. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Kinship and marriage customs among Gonds reflect broader regional patterns. [29] As of 2017, that tribal designation applies only to certain districts, not the entire state. The deities and spirits, especially the ancestor spirits, watch over the strict observance of the tribal rules and punish offenders. [11], The origins of the Gonds are still in debate. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. Shifting cultivation is not merely one type of agriculture but a complex cultural form, a way of life. Nowadays the Gonds increasingly follow the Hindu custom of arranged marriages when the children are still young. Presence of Gond. Every hill, river, lake, tree, and rock is inhabited by a spirit. Reprint. Gonds live all over central India, and in the states of Maharashtra and Orissa. But, again, these are generalizations and there are indigenous societies in which child and forced marriages are common. But in each village the Gonds live in a hamlet of their own. As their language is Dravidian, the Gonds may have passed through lands to the south where the Dravidian languages are found. At one time they must have been settled in the hills between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, because their dialect, Gondi, is closely related to the languages of those regions. A mother's brother generally names a baby boy, while the father's sister names a girl. Most Gonds, however, speak the broader languages of the region they live in. https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gonds, "Gonds The offering depends on the particular deity involved. Bombay: Asia Publishing House. Houses are usually rectangular, built of mud and thatch. The central rite of the Gond wedding consists of the groom walking with his bride seven times around a wedding post erected in the center of the wedding booth. Likewise, a woman may elope with another man if her husband is a bad provider, a drunkard, or a wife beater, or if he is habitually unfaithful. The combination of the clans varies locally, but the number—eighteen—is always retained. They are an Adivasi group (indigenous people) of India The phratry is divided into a number of exogamous clans (pari). But when these remedies remain ineffective, they resort to magical devices. Today they are mainly plough-cultivators whose agriculture differs little from other farming castes in their region. The clan priest (katora) has the responsibility of tending the shrine and ritual objects of the clan's Persa Pen. "Gonds Tex. they sell them themselves. The phratry too observes exogamy, but with the payment of a fine the marriage prohibition can be waived. 4: People of India. [30] The 2011 Census of India for Uttar Pradesh showed the Scheduled Caste Gond population as 21,992.[31]. Baradeo oversees activities of lesser gods such as clan and village deities, as well as ancestors. London: Oxford University Press. Toronto: Crabtree Publishing Co., 1990. Death and Afterlife. He is a personal god—eternal, just, merciful, maker of the fertile earth and of man—though the universe is conceived as coexisting with him. . Gonds have lent their name to Gondwana ("the Land of the Gonds"), the part of India in which they live. More important affairs are discussed and decided upon by all the men of the community. It allows a man to marry more than one woman or a woman to marry more than one man at a time. Originally Gond boys and girls married on reaching physical maturity. They ask soothsayers and diviners to find out the cause of problems and to suggest remedies. Social Organization. In the present political situation the Gonds are, despite their numbers, politically powerless, which is partly because of this Tribal disunity but also because of their comparative lack of education and drive, and their great poverty. They occupy less productive lands in some of the more remote areas of the country. R. V. Russell and Hira Lal maintain that only between the ninth and thirteenth centuries a.d. did the Gonds come and settle in Present-day Gondavana. While a male can never change his clan, a woman on marriage is taken into the clan of her husband. RELATED ARTICLES: Vol. Children grow up as part of a family, clan, and phratry (one of the four main divisions of Gond society), and gradually learn the ways of their people. All Gond death rituals are undertaken for the welfare of the spirit, performed to ensure its smooth passage through the spirit world and its acceptance by the ancestral spirits of the clan. Scholars believe that Gonds ruled in Gondwana, a region extending from what is now eastern Madhya Pradesh to western Odisha and from northern Andhra Pradesh to the southeastern corner of Uttar Pradesh, between the 13th and 19th centuries AD. Gond dynasties ruled in four kingdoms (Garha-Mandla, Deogarh, Chanda, and Kherla) in central India between the sixteenth and mid-eighteenth centuries. POPULATION: 31 million Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). The Mahua plant, whose flowers produce a liquor considered purifying, is also revered. India in the Islamic Era and Southeast Asia (8th to 19th century). Mandla is particularly well-known for their warrior-queen Rani Durgavati, who fought against Akbar until her death in 1564. Parsippany, N.J.: Julian Messner, 1998. Medicine. Gonds perform death rituals to help the spirit move into the other world and to ease its acceptance by other clan spirits. Grigson, William (1938). [6] They are an Adivasi group (indigenous people) of India[7], The Gond are also known as the Raj Gond. Dhulia are a professional musician caste and Pardhans (bards) preserve legends, myths, and history, passing these traditions on from generation to generation. In the plains where the Gonds are more Sanskritized, or influenced by high Hindu culture, some have adopted Hindu ways and begun to live in closed villages, yet apart from the other castes and tribes. The term Gond refers to tribal peoples who live all over India's Deccan Peninsula. 3, 38-143. The Gond and Bhumia of Eastern Mandla. Visiting customs vary throughout the region, though Gonds are normally a hospitable people. 1950. It is the task of the soothsayers and diviners to find out which supernatural agencies have caused the Present sickness or misfortune and how they can be appeased. By contrast, there are Gond groups such as the Raj Gonds and the Katholias who claim high social standing and have substantial land holdings. A clan consists of a group of people who believe that they are descended in the male line from a common ancestor. Afterwards the kingdoms of Kherla and Deogarh were founded. Encyclopedia.com. South of this line of hills, the Gond population thins out in the Waiganga Valley and the Chhattisgarh plain. Like most tribals, the Gonds are accomplished artisans and can manufacture almost all the implements they require for their work on the farm and in the forest, all furniture in house and kitchen, and all of their ornaments and decorations. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gonds. The recent creation of two new states in central India, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, has increased the relative proportions of Gonds, who are classified as Scheduled Tribes in both states, in the population. Average Type Distribution. The Gonds reached even the hills along the southern bank of the Ganges. They also worship Kupar Lingo as their supreme deity and their ancestor before Ravana. The village priest (devari), whose office is usually a hereditary one, performs the sacrifices and rituals for village festivals. [28], The Government of Uttar Pradesh had classified the Gondi people as a Scheduled Caste but by 2007, they were one of several groups that the Uttar Pradesh government had redesignated as Scheduled Tribes. "Gonds From the 14th century onwards, Gond history comes into focus with Muslim writers describing the rise of Gond states in the region. In India, in particular, the gathering of forest products—which has been very much a female activity—is crucial for women to maintain at least some degree of autonomy since they have control over these products, i.e. [a], The Gondi language is spoken by almost 30 lakh Gonds: mainly in the southern area of their range. Stones representing souls of the dead, or hanals, are kept in a hanalkot at the foot of a saja tree. Gonds who are too poor to pay the bride-price and the wedding expenses contract a Service marriage. Such marriages must later be legalized by the relatives and village councils of the partners. Vol.3: The Scheduled Tribes. Newlyweds live with the groom’s family until it is possible for them to move into a house of their own. More and more Gonds are wearing the bodice (choli) along with the sari, in the manner of Hindu women. Conflict and Social Control. They are one of the largest tribal groups in India. Gond weddings include many significant ceremonies. Banerjee, B. G., and Kiran Bhatia. These deities and spirits may be benevolent, but often they are capricious, malevolent, and prone to harming human beings, especially Individuals who have made themselves vulnerable by breaking a rule of the tribal code. "Gonds They consist of a living room, a kitchen, a veranda, and a special room to which women retire while they are menstruating. Still others believe that the soul is absorbed in Bhagwan or Bara Deo. Millet is eaten three times a day, with the broth being preferred for the first two meals and the dry cereal taken with some vegetables in the evening. The council, made up of the headman, the priest, the village watchman, and four or five elders, is responsible for the smooth running of the village and upholding Gond customs and traditions. Most significantly, they all describe themselves as Gonds or, in the local Gondi dialects, as Koi or Koitur. Standards of living among the Gonds reflect socioeconomic status. San Diego State University. Although some Gond communities have risen to the status of landowners, increasing pressure on land is reflected in large numbers of landless laborers among the Gonds. The Art of Gond #HandmadeInIndia A form of painting from folk and tribal art that is practiced by one of the largest tribes in India, the work of Gond artists is rooted in their folk tales and … A settlement commonly involves a fine, or excommunication in varying degrees. In some places, death is associated with a saja tree. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gonds. But generally, except for the observance of exogamy, the clan system has no important function. Gond weddings include many significant ceremonies. Not all Gond ritual requires animal sacrifice; offerings sometimes include fruits, coconuts, flowers, colored powder, and strings. All Gond traditions are oral and, consequently, numerous variations of the same tales are recounted. "Gond." [12] The Maratha power swept into Gondwana in the 1740s. They speak the Gondi language. 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