To update the status of chimpanzees in Côte d'Ivoire and evaluate their population trend, we repeated the 1989–1990 survey. Research published in the American Journal of Primatology earlier this month finds that the overall Western Chimpanzee population has declined by more than 80 percent over the past quarter century. The newly decreased and isolated populations lack genetic diversity and are more vulnerable to increased deaths tolls as a result of disease (Jin, 2012). 'Western chimpanzee populations … The majority of these can be found in Germany, where 65 bonobos are distributed among 6 zoos. Even those chimpanzees which live in protected areas, like national parks and reserves, are subject to illegal mining, logging, and agricultural activities. This article takes a closer look at the conservation status, threats, and global population of the chimpanzee. With more people living around the national park, surrounding forests have been cleared to make way for houses and farms, reducing the national park to a 35 square-kilometer island forest. The large behavioral diversity of chimpanzees, coupled with rapid population decline, makes investigation of the disturbance hypothesis timely: To what extent are chimpanzee behavioral and cultural diversity affected by habitat fragmentation and population loss resulting from human activities? Much smaller concentrations of this species can be found in southeastern Sudan and Burundi. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. THE CHIMPANZEE population is the fast declining in the country. 'In the wild, the Western chimpanzee is under huge threat from hunting, the illegal bush meat trade and extensive habitat loss - all a result of human activity. 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The dramatic decline in the Gombe chimpanzee population is largely due to a significant reduction in suitable forested habitat for the great apes. Chimpanzees could once be found across the central area of Africa, within the equatorial region. Infrastructure expansion, in particular, has also provided poachers with easier access to chimpanzee habitats. Each population faces different threats, thus a regional approach to the conservation of each subspecies is considered crucial. This means that in non-signatory countries, chimpanzees are still being caught and used in circuses. Hunting and killing have driven a dramatic decline in the orangutan population on Borneo where nearly 150,000 animals have been lost from the island’s forests in 16 years, conservationists warn. These animals are valued as a food source for humans. The authors also included “a plea for greater commitment to conservation in West Africa across sectors” in their paper: “Needed especially is more robust engagement by national governments, integration of conservation priorities into the private sector and development planning across the region and sustained financial support from donors,” they wrote. Our results suggest that the close approach of humans to apes, which is central to both research and tourism … As previously mentioned, the wild chimpanzee population is estimated at between 150,000 and 200,000. During 1998–2000 extremely low densities of gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and chimpanzees Pan troglodytes troglodytes were found in the Minkebe Forest block in north-eastern Gabon. The chimpanzees here are found in extremely scattered and very small sections of remaining forests. Chimpanzee population plummets 90 percent in supposedly strong region Chimp populations continue to decline in Africa. DONATE HERE. According to the IUCN, “Chimpanzees are completely protected by national and international laws in all countries of their range, and it is, therefore, illegal to kill, capture or trade in live Chimpanzees or their body parts.” But enforcement of these laws is generally weak, the IUCN adds. Our biweekly podcast delivering news & inspiration from nature’s frontline. Humle, T., Boesch, C., Campbell, G., Junker, J., Koops, K., Kuehl, H. & Sop, T. (2016). Statistics suggest that this species may also be extinct in Togo. chimpanzee, including an evaluation of the change in population size over the last three decades, an update of their geographic range, and an overview of estimated current population sizes. As a proxy for change in abundance, we used transect nest count data from 20 different sites archived in the IUCN SSC A.P.E.S. At the beginning of the 20th century, this area extended from the western regions of Tanzania and Uganda to the southern region of Senegal and chimpanzees inhabited the heavily forested areas. Of particular concern is the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, which has the smallest wild population at only around 6,500. Two independent assessments over the past two years have estimated that human impacts — through loss and fragmentation of habitats and populations — are likely contributing to a 2 per cent to 6 per cent decline in populations of the great apes, including chimpanzees. Chimpanzees could once be found across the central area of Africa, within the equatorial region. Follow Mike Gaworecki on Twitter: @mikeg2001. With continued human population growth and the associated expansion of human-dominated areas, 75% of land surface areas have been anthropogenically modified (Ellis and Ramankutty, 2008). Candid Animal Cam spots badgers, Top 10 environmental news stories of 2020, A Madagascar forest long protected by its remoteness is now threatened by it. Human activity causes severe problems for these primates. blame the animals for malnutrition in their villages, http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T15935A17989872.en, Critical temperature threshold spells shorter lives for tropical trees, Liberia gave villagers control over their forests. For example, in 2002 an outbreak of Ebola swept across the Northern Congo and there were reports of substantial great ape … Women living near a national park in Guinea-Bissau, for instance, consider the chimpanzees themselves unfit for consumption, and blame the animals for malnutrition in their villages because of the damage they do to crops. The estimated change in the subspecies abundance, as approximated by nest encounter rate, yielded a 6% annual decline and a total decline of 80.2% over the study period from 1990 to 2014. This also resulted in a reduced geographic range of 20% (657,600 vs. 524,100 km 2). Because of the similarities between chimpanzees and humans, these animals are able to contract human diseases. Its status as an endangered species has been caused by a number of factors which are discussed below. Poaching for bushmeat and the pet trade are also taking a toll on the chimps, while human-wildlife conflict is an issue even in or near protected areas. Of the 13 western countries where chimpanzees can be found, Cote d’Ivoire has the largest population, however, this once large number has actually decreased by 90% over the last two decades. The chimp’s numbers are “in the low hundreds” in Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, and Senegal, the IUCN notes, while “Côte d’Ivoire has seen a catastrophic decline of about 90% of its Chimpanzee population.”, The authors of the American Journal of Primatology study write that the IUCN plans to start updating a 2003 conservation action plan for Western Chimpanzees this year, with the intent of providing “a consensus blueprint for what is needed to save this subspecies.”. As these habitats become more fragmented, chimpanzee populations are forced to live in greater isolation, which results in a less diverse gene pool. As urban areas come into closer contact with chimpanzee habitats, the likelihood of contracting these diseases increases. Every day, Mongabay reporters bring you news from nature’s frontline. According to the WWF, chimpanzee numbers have declined by 90% in the last 20-30 years in certain countries like Cote d'Ivoire. There are only around 200,000 of them left and experts project that in the next 30-40 years, their population will decline by 80%, leaving only 40,000 wild chimps alive. The chimpanzees found in medical research laboratories are the descendants of wild chimpanzees that were trapped prior to 1973, when the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was enacted. Current statistics indicate that 119 bonobos are living in zoos throughout Europe. verus (errata version published in 2016). Kühl, H. S., Sop, T., Williamson, E. A., Mundry, R., Brugière, D., Campbell, G., … & Jones, S. (2017). Today, chimpanzees are listed as extinct in Burkina Faso, Benin, and Gambia. Those two countries, together with Guinea, are considered strongholds for the subspecies, which is already believed to be extinct in the wild in Benin, Burkina-Faso, and Togo. Our EIN or tax ID is 45-3714703. Small, isolated, or relict populations occur in the Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, and Angola (Cabinda enclave), south-east Nigeria, and possibly the … Of these, around 300 are in zoos and around 1,700 have been bred for use as medical research subjects. Habitat destruction, for development and for agriculture, also causes serious population decline. Our results show that there has been an alarming decline in chimpanzee numbers, and that urgent action is required to prevent them from disappearing entirely. However, in some instances, species are able to persist and co-exist with h… These circus chimpanzees are caught as babies so they can be trained from a young age and the poachers also kill the adults in the group to gain easier access to the targeted babies. Possibly as a consequence of respiratory disease, about half of the long-term chimpanzee research populations have shown major declines 4, 28. Some Western Chimpanzees are known to occur in national parks, but the majority — greater than 70 percent, the IUCN estimates — occur outside protected areas. Even infectious disease outbreaks that decimate the chimp’s numbers may be more frequent thanks to human activities. Chimpanzees are social animals that live in communities of between 15 and 80 individuals. Within these countries, chimpanzees can only be found in large tracts of virgin forests. Results show a major decline in both species of ape across this region with an estimated 77–93% decline in Grauer’s gorilla across its range and between a 22 and 45% decline in the eastern chimpanzee populations. We also discuss possible reasons for their decline and outline what is needed to substantially improve conservation of this subspecies. “This also resulted in a reduced geographic range of 20% (657,600 vs. 524,100 km2).”. The IUCN reports that there is significant overlap between Western Chimpanzee terrain and areas suitable for oil palm development in Western Africa, which is “likely to exacerbate population declines in coming years.” That’s especially true in Liberia, where 94.3 percent of areas of Western Chimp occurrence overlap with areas that might be targeted for oil palm plantations, and Sierra Leone, where there is 84.2 percent overlap. These two chimpanzee species can be differentiated by their size and social structure; the common chimpanzee is larger and has a patriarchal society, while the bonobo is smaller and has a matriarchal society. Chimpanzee meat makes up between 1 and 3% of bushmeat in Ivory Coast markets. Here we assess the rate of population change for the western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, over a 24-year period. This is followed by larger chimpanzee populations in Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. populations. The largest population, around 115,000, is found in the central region of Africa, which includes: the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, and Gabon. The chimpanzee population was believed to be approximately 1 million. This also resulted in a reduced geographic range of 20% (657,600 vs. 524,100 km2). In other areas, this species is killed for use as folk medicine. The average growing chimpanzee population requires 37% lower e 0 (25.8 y to 16.29 y) or 13% lower TFR (5.3 to 4.6), while average declining chimpanzees require 75% higher e 0 (10.6 to 18.5 y), or almost double the baseline TFR to ∼14 live births. Located in the Republic of Guinea, the Chimpanzee Conservation Center (CCC) is a sanctuary created in 1997 for victims of the rampant pet trade.Once abundant in Guinea, wild chimpanzee population continue to decline and are now on the brink of extinction. In the US, for example, around 2,000 chimpanzees are currently living in captivity. “Western chimpanzee populations have declined extremely quickly and continue to do so - with little or no prospect of this decline halting. Both Ebola and HIV are able to infect chimpanzees. Western Chimpanzee numbers declined by more than 80 percent over the past quarter century Research published in the American Journal of Primatology earlier this month finds that the overall Western Chimpanzee population declined by six percent annually between 1990 and 2014, a total decline of 80.2 percent. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed this species as endangered. ‘In the wild, the Western chimpanzee is under huge threat from hunting, the illegal bush meat trade and extensive habitat loss – all a result of human … So do its elephants, Activists in Malaysia call on road planners to learn the lessons of history, Road-paving project threatens a wildlife-rich reserve in Indonesia’s Papua. Many times, the mother is killed and sold in the urban markets as bushmeat and her baby is then sold off as a pet. Results of the simulation show that, should present trends continue, Gombe’s chimpanzee population will continue to decline over the next 50 years, perhaps to about one-half of its current size. The number of chimpanzees held as circus acts or as household pets in non-CITES countries is unknown. The SCNC uses a count of all nests detected Their populations are currently in decline and the IUCN lists them as Endangered. Two methods based on line-transect distance sampling [Buckland et al., 2001], are currently widely used to estimate chimpanzee population sizes: the standing-crop nest counts (SCNC) [Tutin & Fernandez, 1984] and the marked-nest counts (MNC) [Hashimoto, 1995; Plumptre & Reynolds, 1996]. Additionally, these animals are highly sought to be sold and traded in the illegal pet market. CITES signatory countries are prevented from capturing, trading, or otherwise killing plant and animal species on the list. At the beginning of the 20th century, this area extended from the western regions of Tanzania and Uganda to the southern region of Senegal and chimpanzees inhabited the heavily forested areas. The Critically Endangered western chimpanzee declines by 80%. "Since most threats to chimpanzee populations are derived from human activities such as hunting and deforestation, this has contributed to the dramatic decline in chimpanzee populations. This species is divided into two subspecies: the bonobo and the common chimpanzee. It makes the conservation populations in zoos extremely important for the future. Today, however, its range and population size have significantly declined. The main threats to the Western Chimpanzee are almost all man-made. The estimated change in the subspecies abundance, as approximated by nest encounter rate, yielded a 6% annual decline and a total decline of 80.2% over the study period from 1990 to 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T15935A102327574. Report Highlights Decline of Grauer's Gorilla & Eastern Chimpanzee Population in the DRC April 4, 2016 | Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) | Fauna & Flora International A revealing new report documents the decline of Grauer’s gorilla and eastern chimpanzee populations due to a combination of illegal hunting, civil unrest, and habitat loss from mining. Chimpanzee and Human Interaction. As a result of this decline there are no longer populations in Gambia, Burkina Faso, Benin or Togo. The chimpanzee is a great ape species that is native to sub-Saharan Africa, where it prefers forests and jungles. Human disturbance resulted in an average population decline of 25% for terrestrial vertebrates and of 45% for the majority of invertebrates, with the main drivers being habitat destruction, overexploitation, and invasive species (Dirzo et al., 2014). This species is also threatened by disease. In order to arrive at an estimate of the chimp’s population numbers, an international team of scientists led by Hjalmar Kühl of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany used transect count data from 20 different sites that encompassed the nesting grounds for some 25,000 of the estimated 35,000 Western Chimpanzees remaining in the wild. Habitat loss and fragmentation driven by slash-and-burn agriculture, industrial agriculture (including deforestation for oil palm plantations as well as eucalyptus, rubber, and sugar cane developments), and extractive industries like logging, mining, and oil top the list. Within this central area, smaller populations can also be found in: southeast Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, the Central African Republic, and Angola. Chimpanzees are highly intelligent and social animals. The bonobo inhabits areas south of the Congo river and the common chimpanzee can be found to the north of the Congo river. Other chimpanzees can also be found in the western and eastern regions of Africa. Many of these individuals are living in zoos and research centers, although some are used as part of circus acts or kept as pets. When compared with data collected before 1994, these data suggest a catastrophic decline in ape populations in the area. This species can still be found within its original range, however, its habitats are smaller and more fragmented than previously. Sadly, many are used in terrible lab experiments, kept in captivity, and cruelly exploited by humans in a variety of other ways. Chimpanzee habitat loss is also a significant contributor to the population decline as infrastructure expansion, deforestation, and increasing urbanization are infringing upon historical chimpanzee territories. Then a mining company showed up, Why do Eurasian badgers live with foxes? Much smaller populations inhabit Ghana, Senegal, and Mali. … 4 “Without adequate habitat, it will be impossible for the chimpanzee population of Gombe to increase or even to be maintained,” says Wilson. “Their rate of decline is quite alarming,” says Dirck Byler great ape conservation director at GWC and vice chair of the IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group Section on Great Apes. Today, however, its range and population size have significantly declined. The central chimpanzee is the most numerous of all chimpanzee subspecies, with a population of up to 115,000 individuals, mostly in Gabon, Cameroon, and Congo. Western chimpanzee populations have declined extremely quickly and continue to do so – with little or no prospect of this decline halting. database, representing 25,000 of the estimated remaining 35,000 western chimpanzees. Both have the largest brains of all primates, are the most intelligent, use tools, and are the closest relatives to humans. The primary threats facing chimpanzees today include: poaching, illegal pet trade, habitat loss, and sickness. 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AMSLER2 1Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 2Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas By Amber Pariona on August 1 2017 in Environment. In response to the finding that the Western Chimpanzee population has dropped so precipitously in less than three decades, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) elevated the subspecies’ status to Critically Endangered on its Red List of Threatened Species. A new survey of our closest relatives in the Cote D’Ivoire found that the population fell from an estimated 8,000 to 12,000 individuals to a paltry 800 to 1,200, a decline that took place in less than twenty years. Populations are no longer found in Gambia, Burkina Faso, Benin, or Togo. hbspt.cta.load(5981609, '8f4c6e6c-f5b2-40c0-926e-1af2470257f3', {}); Mongabay is a reader-supported conservation and environmental science news service. Poaching poses the greatest threat to these creatures. The common chimpanzee has a wild population size of between 150,000 and 250,000 and the bonobo is estimated to have a wild population of between 29,500 and 50,000. The population of the endangered West African chimpanzees in Ivory Coast has fallen by about 90% in less than 20 years, a study has suggested. If you value this objective and impact-driven journalism, please consider becoming a sustaining member. In the east, chimpanzees inhabit the western areas of Tanzania and Uganda, Rwanda, the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Pan troglodytes ssp. FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. Current trends indicate that African ape populations will decline by an additional 80 percent in the next 30-40 years. “The estimated change in the subspecies abundance, as approximated by nest encounter rate, yielded a 6% annual decline and a total decline of 80.2% over the study period from 1990 to 2014,” the researchers write. Around the world, additional chimpanzee populations are being kept in captivity. The chimpanzee population was believed to be approximately 1 million. Poaching is a serious problem for chimpanzee conservation. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, Population And Distribution Of Chimpanzees: Important Facts And Figures, Distribution And Population Of Gorillas: Important Facts And Figures, The Population Of Giant Pandas - Important Facts And Figures, The Population of Red Pandas: Important Facts and Figures. In the case of Grauer’s gorilla, an 80% decline in 20 years is justification for listing this subspecies as Critically Endangered In the west, population estimates range between 21,000 and 55,000. Dryness? That could mean that, in addition to the often intractable threats they’re already facing, the chimps could be facing even larger threats in the near future. American Journal of Primatology. “This action plan is more critical than ever…We’re watching the loss of chimpanzee populations before our very eyes.” These individuals inhabit the area north of the Sanaga river and approximately 1,500 of them, the only ones considered protected, can be found in the Gashaka-Gumti National Park. Both hunting and habitat loss affect the current chimpanzee populations but also affect the future sustainability of the species. Where they numbered perhaps 1 million at the turn of the 20th century, today it’s estimated there are 172,000-300,000 chimpanzees remaining in the wild. Mongabay is a U.S.-based non-profit conservation and environmental science news platform. We depend on support from users like you. The Chimpanzee Conservation Center is located in the heart of the National Park of Upper Niger within the Faranah Prefecture. Western Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) are one of four commonly recognized subspecies of the great ape, the others being the Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee (P. t. ellioti), the Central Chimpanzee (P. t. troglodytes), and the Eastern Chimpanzee (P. t. schweinfurthii). Aging, Discussion- “…Additionally, there was no significant difference in the age-related decline between humans and chimpanzee (Figure 3), even though a larger negative correlation with less variance was found in the matched human sample as compared to the chimpanzees demonstrates a commonality in the healthy aging process that was thought to be specific to humans. 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