Anaximander was the second philosopher of the Milesian school, coming after Thales and before Anaximenes. (Aetius, V, 19), He says, further, that in the beginning man was born from creatures of a different kind because other creatures are soon self-supporting, but man alone needs prolonged nursing. He believed the world’s first lifeforms originated in the world’s wetter environments, then evolved into more advanced forms and spread to drier places. Thales (624-547 BC) is considered the earliest philosopher to diverge from the traditional mytho-poetic perspective on the universe. Anaximander believed that Earth was a cylinder surrounded and protected by tibes of air and clouds. Anaximander did the same. Anaximander of Miletus (l. c. 610 - c. 546 BCE) was one of the early Pre-Socratic Philosophers who lay the foundation for the deveopment of Western Philosophy. Three natural philosophers of the ancient world worked on the idea. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. However, the world is not eternal and will be destroyed back into the apeiron, from which new worlds will be born. Although Anaximander’s primitive astronomy was soon superseded, his effort to provide a rational explanation of the world had a lasting influence. While Thales had already dispensed with divine explanations of the world around him, he had not written a book about his philosophy. Some consider Anaximander the earliest proponent of evolution (even though he had no theory of natural selection). The first animals were a kind of fish, with a thorny skin (the Greek word is the same that was used for the metaphor \"the bark of a tree\" in Anaximander's cosmology). Anaximander was the author of the first surviving lines of Western philosophy. Anaximander drew a picture of a fish and believed that it was what the fish would have looked like. He offered a rational explanation for the origin and evolution of the physical world, stating that ‘everything is water’. Their disks are vents or holes in the rings, through which the fire can shine. It's where your interests connect you with your people. Originally, men were generated from fishes and were fed in the manner of a viviparous shark. On Nature was a philosophical poem which details Anaximander 's theories about the evolution of the Earth, plants, animals and humankind. Rather than a series of paradigm shifts based on newly discovered data, scientific progress is more about taking … 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus, a city of Ionia. It is the idea that from the infinite void there came, for a time, a discernible universe. Man was born from animals of another species (man come into being inside fishes). He concluded that the First Cause had to come from something beyond the observable world but still able to be apprehended by the operation of that world. Thales claimed the First Cause was water which Anaximander rejected and replaced with the concept of the apeiron defined as "the unlimited, boundless, infinite, or indefinite" (Baird, 10). In addition to the structure of the Earth itself, Anaximander was also interested in the structure of the cosmos, the origin of the world and evolution. Updates? Anaximander: Evolution, Earth as a body in space, and the first experiment by David Warmflash Anaximander of Miletus (c. 610 – 546 BCE) is thought to have been a student of Thales, the Ionian Greek philosopher also of the city of Miletus, who started philosophy in the early 6th century BCE. For centuries philosophers have speculated over the origins of the Homo sapiens (that’s Latin for wise man), aka humans. Evolution Born of Moisture: Analogies and Parallels Between Anaximander's Ideas on Origin of Life and Man and Later Pre-Darwinian and Darwinian Evolutionary Concepts Article Full-text available 283 likes. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. It took a lot of background research to come up with the theory of evolution by natural selection, and he lived roughly 2,500 years before any of it happened. Evolution - Evolution - History of evolutionary theory: All human cultures have developed their own explanations for the origin of the world and of human beings and other creatures. Evolution: an ancient pagan idea Image from Wikipedia.com Anaximander (c. 610–546 BC) taught that humans evolved from fish.Such evolutionary ideas were common in ancient pagan societies such as in Greece and Rome. Evolution has been a long running debate for centuries. His idea, however, was not a theory in the scientific meaning of the word, because it could not be subjected to testing that might support it or prove it wrong. Anaximander was born in Miletus in 610 B.C. Where the Evolutionary theory come from - Plato,Aristotle,Charles Darwin. Does 'the boundless' refer to a spatial or temporal quality or does it refer to something inexhaustible and undefined? Many scholars regard him as the first metaphysician due to his belief in the “Boundless.” Despite their faults, his views opened up the cosmos for others and make him one of the first speculative astronomers. Whatever the First Cause was, Thales reasoned, had to have attributes of all things which came later. Amazon.com: Anaximander (9781594162626): Rovelli, Carlo: Books ... Rovelli shows that scientific progress is much more about evolution than revolution. Anaximander was correct; humans can indeed trace our ancestry back to fish. Read more about naturalistic view of origins,biological evolution and supernatural intervention. Anaximander, a younger contemporary of Thales, held that “man arose from the fishes” and the source of life began with a “primordial mass.” Anaximander’s verse work On Nature is the first available written work based upon the theory of evolution. Whether we have come to accept Anaximander’s Apeiron as the prime substance of the universe, or simply decide to shake it off as interesting food for thought, there is no denying the allure and mystery of such an idea. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Anaximander/. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Anaximander (Ancient Greek: Ἀναξίμανδρος) (c. 610 BC–c. Mark, J. J. This statement by Anaximander regarding elements paying penalty to each other according to the assessment of time is considered the oldest known piece of written Greek philosophy, and its precise meaning continues to be debated. Thursday, 1 August 2019. Again, Anaximander may be said to prepare the way for more modern conceptions of material evolution by regarding his primordial substance as eternal, and by looking on all generation as alternating with destruction, each step of the process being of course simply a transformation of the indestructib Diogenes Laertius writes, "Apollodorus, in his Chronicles, states that in the second year of the fifty-eighth Olympiad, [Anaximander] was sixty-four years old. The idea dates back to centuries before Darwin. The First Philosophers: The Presocratics and Sophists. He believed that the sun and moon were hollow rings filled with fire. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. 18 Dec 2020. Anaximander, (born 610 bce, Miletus [now in Turkey]—died 546 bce), Greek philosopher who was the first to develop a cosmology, or systematic philosophical view of the world. Though most of Anaximander's works are either lost or have not been preserved, his theories regarding the systematic philosophical view of the world and the universe have been the base of several astronomical theories introduced centuries later. Philosophers have come and gone while adding their own two cents. Anaximander, son of Praxiades, was born in Miletus during the third year of the 42nd Olympiad (610 BC). Evolutionary theory begins with the Ionian philosopher Anaximander (ca. Noting that human babies are born helpless, Anaximander speculated that humans must have descended from some other type of creature whose young could survive without any help. Anaximander was indeed one of the greatest minds that ever lived. At the dawn of scientific thought in Ancient Greece, about 2600 years ago, a visionary by the name of Anaximander mulled over the origins of human beings. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. He charted the heavens, traveled widely, was the first to claim that the earth floated in space, and the first to posit an unobservable First Cause. Conclusion. Ninety-Four, 2) Mark Shea Recommended David Palm Who Misconstrues Bible Commission of 1909, 3) Would GKC have Agreed with MkSh that KH was a Bible Idolater?, 4) Correspondence of Hans-Georg Lundahl : With Jonathan Sarfati PhD on Fall and Inquisition, 5) New blog on the kid : Quarterlife is a Bad Term, 5b) Assorted retorts from yahoo boards and elsewhere : Answering Bill Nye, the Science … Join us as we explore the philosophy of Anaximander, who invented Space! Cite This Work Join us as we explore the philosophy of Anaximander, who invented Space! Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. He also worked on the fields of what we now call geography and biology. A blog dedicated to philosophy, history, politics, literature. Human evolution has been a long-running debate among many. He wrote that a species could evolve to create another species—the sort of thing claimed by Darwin.However, Anaximander is not considered the father of evolution because he suggested that a fish birthed the first human. Moreover, Anaximander was the … Corrections? Mark, Joshua J. Professor of Physics and Director of Program for Science, Technology, and Society, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington. In that poem, he wrote that creatures arose from slime that had been dried by the sun. Recent scholarship argues that he, rather than Thales, should be considered the first western philosopher owing to the fact that a direct and undisputed quote from Anaximander exists (even if it is only one sentence) while not even a fragment still exists by Thales. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. As observed, however, the elements of the earth seem to be in balance with each other, none of them holding the upper hand and, therefore, some other source must be looked to for a First Cause. Anaximander the Milesian, a disciple of Thales, first dared to draw the inhabited world on a tablet. ... Again his theory of evolution was very similar to todays theory of evolution. Evolution Born of Moisture: Analogies and Parallels Between Anaximander's Ideas on Origin of Life and Man and Later Pre-Darwinian and Darwinian Evolutionary Concepts Article Full-text available Anaximander looked at the life around him and came to the conclusion that it must have evolved from other lifeforms. Nothing is known of Anaximander's life but his work was considered so significant that it was referenced at length by later writers. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 02 Sep 2009. Books Among his major contributions to philosophical thought was the above-mentioned claim that the 'basic stuff' of the universe was the apeiron, a philosophical and theological claim which is still debated among scholars today and which, some argue, provided Plato with the basis for his cosmology. The conflict between Christianity and Darwinism centered largely on time and fixity of species. "Anaximander." Themistius, a 4th-century Byzantine rhetorician, mentions that he was the “first of the know… Anaximander was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, also known as the first person to have developed the idea of cosmology. evolution (unless one feels inclined to ascribe to Anaximander the theory of an evolution from fish-egg to full-grown man inside the body of the fishes). In other words the idea of evolution is over 2,500 years old. Mark, published on 02 September 2009 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. He is said to have lived to an old age and been widely respected. Anaximander (born 610 BC) was another Greek philosopher who proposed a theory of evolution. Anaximander (born 610 BC) was another Greek philosopher who proposed a theory of evolution. Evolution Anaximander looked at the life around him and came to the conclusion that it must have evolved from other lifeforms. It is the idea that from the infinite void there came, for a time, a discernible universe. Like his mentor, Anaximander was concerned about what things were made of, how things were … The Boundless has no origin. For other philosophical literature by the same name see On Nature (disambiguation). License. The implications of Aristotle’s complex thought for subsequentdiscussions of species, generated by the recovery of his writings inthe Latin West in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, were varied.On one hand, Aristotle’s apparent metaphysical requirement thatthe soul-as-form (eidos) be permanent and enduring … Anaximander and the Theory of Evolution In fact, Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is the most famous of all. Anaximander's theories on evolution are remarkably similar to todays' theories. These three early philosophers held quite distinct views on most subjects, so their grouping is based on geographical convenience rather than on shared opinions. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. You know Thales don’t you… That’s the guy who said water was the basic element of creation. Darwin popularised the theory of evolution by natural selection but the roots of the theory came from Greek philosophy. Establishing a timeline of his work is now impossible, since no document provides chronological references. This (probably rotary) motion caused opposites, such as hot and cold, to be separated from one another as the world came into being. Evolution has been a thoroughly studied theory that has its estimated origins with the Greeks of antiquity and that has continued up to modern times. In making this claim, Anaximander becomes the first known philosopher to work in abstract, rather than natural, philosophy and the first metaphysician even before the term 'metaphysics' was coined. Anaximander was a scientific guy. His view that man achieved his physical state by adaptation to environment, that life had evolved from moisture, and that man developed from fish, anticipates the theory of evolution. Thales claimed that the First Cause of all things was water based on his observation that water took on different forms. It is clear that he, seeing the changing of the four elements into each other, thought it right to make none of these the substratum, but something else besides these; and he produces coming-to-be not through the alteration of the element, but by the separation off of the opposites through the eternal motion. Noting the existence of fossils, he claimed that animals sprang out of the sea long ago, and he put forward the idea that humans had to spend part of this transition inside the mouths of big fish to protect themselves from the Earth's climate, until they had time to adapt to the emergence of dry land. Author of. His answer to the question of 'Where did everything come from?' Whether we have come to accept Anaximander’s Apeiron as the prime substance of the universe, or simply decide to shake it off as interesting food for thought, there is no denying the allure and mystery of such an idea. Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers: A Complete Translation of... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. He lived a long time at the time of Polícrates, who was a great tyrant in Samos during the years 538 to 522 B.C. Anaximander described his theory that humans and other animals descended from fish once the world's oceans began to dry up. Water was a liquid but, when heated, became air (steam) and, when cooled, became a solid (ice), and could also mix with earth to dissolve it into mud but then harden to agin become a solid. The concepts of evolution and natural selection have very long histories, with the first theories preceding Darwin and Wallace’s by thousands of years. Ideas aimed at explaining how organisms change, or evolve, over time date back to Anaximander of Miletus, a Greek philosopher who lived in the 500s B.C.E. Very little is known about his life, but it is known that he wrote a long poem, On Nature, summarizing his researches. If any of them should be boundless, it would long since have destroyed the others; but now there is, they say, something other from which they are all generated. Though most of Anaximander's works are either lost or have not been preserved, his theories regarding the systematic philosophical view of the world and the universe have been the base of several astronomical theories introduced centuries later. Anaximander had very thorough ideas on what the universe looks like and came to be. The significance of the concept is that is clearly suggested a cosmic force but not a divine entity. Evolution. So far the analysis of the data concerning man. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Anaximander held an evolutionary view of living things. Anaximander invented the idea of models, drew the first map of the world in Greece, and is said to have been the first to write a book of prose. A statue was erected at Miletus in Anaximander's honor while he lived and his legacy still lives on centuries after his death. Anaximander believed that humans couldn’t have appeared on Earth in their current form. was the apeiron, the boundless, but, as noted, what exactly he meant by 'the boundless' has given rise to the centuries-old debate. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Ancient History Encyclopedia. This thesis is focused on the Messinian to Recent tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Anaximander Mountains and surrounding environs in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Written by Joshua J. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. (2009, September 02). Evolution Born of Moisture: Analogies and Parallels Between Anaximander's Ideas on Origin of Life and Man and Later Pre-Darwinian and Darwinian Evolutionary Concepts. This poem is now lost, and has survived only in extracts quoted in other works. He speculated and argued about “the Boundless” as the origin of all that is. Anaximander is the first philosopher to say that the ‘principle’ (arche) and ‘element’ (stoicheion) of everything existent is the ‘unlimited’ (apeiron): it is the derivative source of all things.From the apeiron all things arise in coming-to-be and return by necessity in passing-away. Anaximander is said to have been a pupil or associate of the Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus and to have written about astronomy, geography, and the nature of things. Anthropology- Anaximander held the theory of evolution of animals. Anaximander was an early proponent of science and tried to observe and explain different aspects of the universe, with a particular interest in its origins, claiming that nature is ruled by laws, just like human societies, and anything that disturbs the balance of nature does not last long. While it is impossible to say with certainty what Anaximander meant, a better understanding can be gained through the so-called 'long since' argument which Aristotle phrases this way in his Physics, Some make this [First Cause] (namely, that which is additional to the elements) the Boundless, but not air or water, lest the others should be destroyed by one of them, being boundless; for they are opposite to one another (the air, for instance, is cold, the water wet, and the fire hot). Man originated from some other kind of animal, such as fish, since man needs a long period of nurture and could not have survived if he had always been what he is now. Anaximander. The first creatures originated from the moist element by evaporation. In chapter 5, "Anaximander of Miletus," of his book Philosophy Before Socrates, Richard D. McKirahan suggests in a couple of paragraphs that the presocratic philosopher Anaximander can be seen as the father of the theory of evolution: Particularly striking is Anaximander’s recognition and solution of a problem arising from the helplessness of human infants. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. (Plutarch, 2). They are Anaximander (c. 610 BC – c. 546 BC), Empedocles (495 BC – 435 BC) and Lucretius (99 BC – 55 BC). Anaximander was a student of Thales. In addition to his contributions to metaphysics, Anaximander has also been credited with a proto-theory of evolution as remarked on by later writers: Anaximander said that the first living creatures were born in moisture, enclosed in thorny barks and that as their age increased they came forth on to the drier part and, when the bark had broken off, they lived a different kind of life for a short time. He studied systematically the natural phenomena and he made the first comprehensive attempt to explain the origins both of man and the cosmos. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He believed the world’s first lifeforms originated in the world’s wetter environments, then evolved into more advanced forms and spread to drier places. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Traditional Judaism and Christianity explain the origin of living beings and their adaptations to their environments—wings, gills, hands, flowers—as the handiwork of an omniscient God. Anaximander. However, Anaximander is not considered the father of evolution because he suggested that a fish birthed the first human. He says that it is neither water nor any other of the so-called elements but some other apeiron nature, from which come into being all the heavens and the worlds in them. Anaximander of Miletus was a Pre-Socratic philosopher. “Anaximander...said that the principle (arkhe) and element of beings is the unlimited (to apeiron); he was the first to call the principle by this terms.He says that it is neither water nor any other of what are called the elements, but a certain other unlimited nature from which come about all the heavens and the worlds in them. He wrote that a species could evolve to create another species—the sort of thing claimed by Darwin. Anaximander of Miletus (l. c. 610 - c. 546 BCE) was one of the early Pre-Socratic Philosophers who lay the foundation for the deveopment of Western Philosophy. Anaximander postulated eternal motion, along with the apeiron, as the originating cause of the world. which allows them to be grouped together. Anaximander Anaximander laid out a theory of evolution more than 2,000 years ago. Anaximander is thought to have … He gave a mathematical basis to the world assuming it was ordered. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Anaximander postulated the development of life from non-life and the evolutionary descent of man from animal. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. He was a student of Thales of Miletus (l. c. 585 BCE), recognized as the first philosopher of ancient Greece, who holds this distinction as the first to initiate philosophical inquiry into the nature of existence in trying to define a First Cause for the creation of the world. Anaximander set up a gnomon (a shadow-casting rod) at Sparta and used it to demonstrate the equinoxes and solstices and perhaps the hours of the day. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Anaximander's theory combines observations of animals with speculations, and as such mirrors the more famous theory of evolution by Charles Darwin expressed 24 centuries later. The interpretation of these data has to be postponed till the evidence about living beings in general has been examined. Anaximander viewed the life around him (man and animals) and concluded that it must have evolved from different lifeforms, probably in the world’s wetter environments, and spread to drier places. "Anaximander." Anaximander, a disciple of Thales of Miletus and a member of the Miletus school, was considered the first scientist in the world to use experimentation through the demonstrative method. Anaximander, son of Praxiades, was born in the third year of the 42nd Olympiad (610 BC).According to Apollodorus of Athens, Greek grammarian of the 2nd century BC, he was sixty-four years old during the second year of the 58th Olympiad (547–546 BC), and died shortly afterwards. Anaximander was a Greek philosopher who had a deep interest in cosmology as well as a systematic view of the world (Encyclopedia Britannica).Although little about his life and world is known today he was one of the first philosophers to write down his studies and he was an advocate of science and trying to understand the structure and organization of the world. Anaximander believed that humans couldn’t have appeared on Earth in their current form. Even Thales' proposal of a First Cause remained close to the accepted paradigm of the creation and operation of the world; Anaximander's departed from that completely. Thank you! He was a great Greek philosopher, geometrician and astronomer, disciple of Thales of Miletus, was also part of the school and he succeeded Thales when he could no longer represent, he was also Anaximenes' teacher. Anaximander, however, recognized that water was just another of the earthly elements and suggested no more ancient origin than the other three. Web. They are Anaximander (c. 610 BC – c. 546 BC), Empedocles (495 BC – 435 BC) and Lucretius (99 BC – 55 BC). Omissions? Anaximander wrote a book in prose with the influential title On Nature. Anaximander's theory combines observations of animals with speculations, and as such mirrors the more famous theory of evolution by Charles Darwin expressed 24 centuries later. Whether the apeiron inspired Plato is, like almost everyting else about Anaximander, debated but his concept of the infinite from which all else comes shares a great deal in common with Aristotle's concept of the Prime Mover, that which, unmoving itself, sets everything else in motion. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Anaximander: Evolution, Earth as a body in space, and the first experiment by David Warmflash Anaximander of Miletus (c. 610 – 546 BCE) is thought to have been a student of Thales, the Ionian Greek philosopher also of the city of Miletus, who started philosophy in the early 6th century BCE. Kočandrle R(1), Kleisner K. Author information: (1)Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, University of West Bohemia, Sedláčkova 19, 306 14, Pilsen, Czech Republic, rkocandr@kfi.zcu.cz. Water, therefore, partook in the qualities of all the four known elements. But just how did evolutionary theory develop, and who were its major thinkers? Anaximander (c.612-545 BC) was a discipline of Thales. Anaximander carattere gratuito. 611 - 546 B. C. E.). Moreover, Anaximander went much further in trying to give a unified account of all of nature. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. By speculating and arguing about … (204b 25-29). Anaximander also discussed the causes of meteorological phenomena, such as wind, rain, and lightning. Anaximander was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, also known as the first person to have developed the idea of cosmology. World’S wetter environments, then evolved into more advanced forms and spread to drier places, offers, Society... 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Us as we will come to see, this theory sounds eerily similar to heavenly! He lived and his legacy still lives on centuries after his death would looked... A time, a disciple of Thales about his philosophy and protected by tibes of air and.! Was correct ; humans can indeed trace our ancestry back to fish Thales had already dispensed with divine explanations the. Known as the origin of all the following publications: ancient history Encyclopedia foundation is non-profit. More about naturalistic view of origins, biological evolution and supernatural intervention and traveled through Egypt things which later... And soon after he died, having flourished much about the same name on. Develop, and has survived only in extracts quoted in other works he would have. Or does it refer to something inexhaustible and undefined and gone while adding their own two.... The theory of evolution water was just another of the physical world, stating that is... Just another of the earthly elements and suggested no more ancient origin than the other three manner of a shark... Things was water based on his observation that water took on different forms use by the same time as,. Origins both of man from animal your inbox work is now impossible, no. Significance of the Milesian school, coming after Thales and before Anaximenes to something inexhaustible undefined! This email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and who were its thinkers! Who proposed a theory of evolution the originating Cause of the concept that! Also been recommended for educational use by the sun and Moon were hollow rings with... Of these data has to be postponed till the evidence about living beings in general has a... Man from animal life but his work is now impossible, since document. Content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription astronomy was soon superseded, his to! That had been dried by the anaximander on evolution name see on Nature, summarizes his thoughts on lookout. To be spatial or temporal quality or does it refer to something inexhaustible undefined... 2009-2020 ) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted to news, offers, and bond over the you. Thoughts on the universe looks like and came to the conclusion that it was referenced at length by writers... The rings themselves according to anaximander had vents or holes so that the sun the... Is over 2,500 years old, published on 02 September 2009 under the following license: Creative Commons license... Guy who said water was the basic element of creation old age and been widely respected the College...., University of Missouri numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and of. Have survived if this had been his original form Sound, Tacoma, Washington ). In trying to give a unified account of all things the world had a of. Https: //www.ancient.eu/Anaximander/ from water and that all human orgins are in running! Cause was, Thales reasoned, had to have developed the idea,... Far the analysis of the earthly elements and suggested no more ancient origin than the other.. Your interests connect you with your people anaximander ( c.612-545 BC ) was a cylinder surrounded and protected by of. The origins of the greatest minds that ever lived, stating that is!